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Template:Contains special characters Template:Contains special characters The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-pa}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Punjabi phonology, Gurmukhi, and Shahmukhi for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Punjabi.

IPA Examples English Approximation
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi ISO 15919
b ਬਿਸਤਰਾ اTemplate:Nq bistarā butter
d ਦਿੱਤਾ Template:Nq dittā duck[1]
ਜਦੋਂ Template:Nq jadōṁ jug
ɖ ਡੰਗਰ Template:Nq angar guard[1]

(Rhotic dialects)

ɡ ਗੱਡੀ Template:Nq gaḍḍī gut
ɦ ਹਾਏ Template:Nq hāe ahead
j ਯਾਰੀ Template:Nq yārī yuck
k ਕਿੱਖੇ
ਔਖਾ Template:Nq aukhā cab
l ਲਾਂਬਾ Template:Nq lāmbā leaf
ɭ[2] ਰੌਲ਼ਾ Template:Nq rauā garlic

(Rhotic dialects)

m ਮਸੀਤ Template:Nq masīt much
n ਨੂਹ Template:Nq nūh not
ɳ[2] ਸੋਹਣਾ Template:Nq sohā burn
ɲ ਉਂਞ Template:Nq uñj canyon
ŋ ਕੰਙਣ Template:Nq kagaṇ bang
p ਸੁਪਨਾ
ਫੁੱਲ Template:Nq phull pot
ɾ ਵਾਰੀ Template:Nq rī American atom[3]
ɽ ਕੂੜ Template:Nq garter (Rhotic dialects)
ɽʱ ਉਲੇੜ੍ਹ Template:Nq uleṛh no English equivalent
s ਸਾਡਾ Template:Nq sāḍā sun
t ਤਿੱਲੜ Template:Nq tillaṛ stub[1]
ਓਥੇ Template:Nq othē tub[1]
tʃʰ ਛੱਡ Template:Nq chaḍḍ choose
ʈ ਸੱਟ
ʈʰ ਕਾਠ Template:Nq ṭh trip[1]
ʋ ਵਹੁਟੀ Template:Nq vahuṭī vat[4]
Marginal consonants
f[5] ਫ਼ੇਰ Template:Nq fer fuss
ɣ[6] ਕਾਗ਼ਜ਼ Template:Nq ġaz similar to a French r
q[6][7] ਕ਼ਲਮ Template:Nq qalam somewhat like caught
r[3] ਮੁਕ਼ੱਰਰ Template:Nq muqarrar Trilled R
ʃ ਹੋਸ਼ Template:Nq hoś shoe
x[5] ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸ Template:Nq k͟hālis Scottish Loch
z[6] ਹਜ਼ਾਰ Template:Nq hazār zoo
IPA Examples English Approximation
Gurmukhi Shahmukhi ISO 15919
ə ਕਮ Template:Nq kam about
ਨਾਲ਼ Template:Script/Nastaliq nā father
e ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ Template:Script/Nastaliq vāhiguru say (shortened ē)
ਜੇਬ Template:Nq jēb say
ɛ ਰਹਿਣਾ Template:Nq rahiṇā pen[8]
ɛː ਪੈਂਦਾ Template:Nq painda fairy
ɪ ਇਮਲੀ Template:Nq imalī sit[9]
ਈਖ Template:Nq īkh seat[9]
i ਬੱਤੀ Template:Nq battī happy[9]
ਬੋਲੋ Template:Nq bōlō border (Received Pronunciation) go (General American)
ɔː ਕੌਣ Template:Nq kaun dog (Received Pronunciation) horse (General American)
ʊ ਤੁਕ Template:Nq tuk book
ਸੂਤ Template:Nq sūt moon[9]
◌̃ ਹੰਸ Template:Nq has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
ਮੈਂ Template:Nq mai
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [pənˈdʒaːb] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)
á, é, ... ਕੋੜ੍ਹਾ Template:Nastaliq kohṛā 'leper' high, or high-falling tone
à, è, ... ਘੋੜਾ Template:Nastaliq ghoṛā 'horse' low, or low-rising tone
  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 Punjabi contrast dental Template:IPAblink and Template:IPAblink with apical postalveolar Template:IPAblink and Template:IPAblink (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Considered an allophone of l and n in the Shahmukhi alphabet, though pronounced.
  3. 3,0 3,1 /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  4. [w] occurs as an allophone of [ʋ] when / Template:Nastaliq/ is in an onglide position between an onset consonant and a following vowel while [ʋ], which may phonetically be Template:IPAblink, occurs otherwise.
  5. 5,0 5,1 f and x are not considered native sounds and are present only in loanwords, or they can be considered as tonal sounds of for Indian dialects. In Pakistani dialects and the Shahmukhi alphabet, it is not considered a tonal sound, and some words are natively derived such as Template:Nq 'fer' (ਫੇਰ 'pher' ~ ਫਿਰ 'phir'). x may, however, be considered a tonal sound for in Pakistani dialects and are pronounced but not written as such.
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 Not considered a native sound (nor a native letter in Gurmukhi, hence written as a modified consonant with a Nuqta placed below the corresponding letter, unlike Shahmukhi, for which the original letter from Persian, which was derived from the Arabic script). The phonology is, however, retained in Pakistani dialects except for q for which only the spelling is retained, but it is pronounced interchangeably with k.
  7. Bhardwaj, Mangat (25 August 2016). Panjabi: A Comprehensive Grammar (per English). Routledge. p. 390. ISBN 978-1-317-64326-5. Almost all Panjabi speakers (and many Urdu speakers as well) pronounce the first two of these words with k instead of q.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  8. [ɛ] occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.
  9. 9,0 9,1 9,2 9,3 /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i, u] at the end of a word.

Template:IPA keys