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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Portuguese language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-pt}}, {{IPAc-pt}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Distinction is made between the two major standards of the language—Portugal (European Portuguese, PE; broadly the standard also used in Africa and in Asia) and Brazil (Brazilian Portuguese, PB). Neither variant is preferred at Wikipedia, except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant, such as a place in Brazil or an individual from Portugal.

National variant differences should be noted with discretion. When there are differing dialectal Brazilian Portuguese pronunciations, the one closest to European Portuguese should generally be preferred, as this guide is intended to help native speakers of other languages.

See Portuguese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Portuguese.

IPA Examples English approximation
b b beiço, âmbar, sob about
β cabeça, sobre[1] PE: between baby and bevy
PB: about
ð d cedo, idade[1] PE: other
PB: today
d dedo, lenda today
digo, ande, balde[2] PE: today
PB: jig
f fado, café face
ɡ ɡ gato, signo, bingo, guerra again
ɣ fogo, figueira[1] PE: between ago and ahold
PB: again
k cor, dica, quente, kiwi scan
l l lua, alô toll
w mal[3] PE: toll
PB: tow
ʎ lhe, velho[4] million
m mês, somo might
n não, sono not
ɲ nhoque, sonho canyon
p pó, sopa, apto spouse
ʁ ʁ rio, carro, enrascado[5][6] French rouge
ɾ r, porto, por favor[5][6][7] PE: atom (GA)
PB: French rouge
ɾ frio, caro, por acaso[6][7] atom (GA)
s s saco, isso, braço, máximo sack
ʃ escola, as portas, dez, texto[8] PE: sheep
PB: sack
ʃ chave, achar, xarope, baixo, sushi sheep
tchau, atchim chip
t tipo, ritmo, ponte[2] PE: stand
PB: chip
t tempo, átomo stand
v vela, livro vest
ʒ ʒ já, gente pleasure
z rasgo, os meus[8] PE: pleasure
PB: zebra
z casa, os amigos, doze, existir zebra
IPA Examples English approximation
j saia, pais you, boy
w frequente, quão, mau, Cauã quick, glow
Stressed vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a a alzheimer, Jaime,[10] dá, lámen, àquele father
ɐ falámos, falamos,[11] andaime[10] PE: father
PB: purse (RP)
ɐ falamos, câmera, bug purse (RP)
e abelha, venho, jeito[12] PE: purse (RP)
PB: they
e meto, sê they
ɛ prémio, prêmio PE: set
PB: they
ɛ meta, sé, Émerson,[13] cafezinho set
i si, dia, país, suíço, rainha,[14] diesel see
ɔ ɔ formosa, formosos, avó, somente off
o Antônio, António PE: off
PB: row (GA)
o avô, formoso, alô row (GA)
u rua, lúcido, saúde boot
Unstressed vowels
ɐ ɐ taça, manhã[15] about
a maior, aquele, da PE: about
PB: grandma
a Camões, caveira grandma
ɛ e incrível, segmento[13] PE: access
PB: survey
ɨ semáforo PE: emission
PB: survey
i jure, pequeno,[16] se PE: emission
PB: happy
i júri, meandro, e, doe[17] happy
ɔ o hospital[13] PE: royale
PB: arrow (GA)
u sortudo PE: outlook
PB:  arrow (GA)
u evacuar, boneco,[16] vi-o, voo, frio[17], os outlook
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ João [ʒuˈɐ̃w] (PE, PB) lexical stress
ˌ Vila-Chã [ˌvilɐˈʃɐ̃] (PE, PB) secondary stress
. Rio [ˈʁi.u] (PE, PB) syllable break
◌̃ Chã [ˈʃɐ̃] (PE, PB)[18] nasal vowel
◌̥ devoiced vowel
Other representations
( ) Douro [ˈdo(w)ɾu] (PE, PB) optional sound
  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 In northern and central Portugal, /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation (Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAblink, and Template:IPAblink, respectively) in all places except after a pause, a nasal vowel, or (for /d/) /l/, when they are stops [b, d, ɡ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g Template:Harvcol. In southern and insular Portugal and in Brazil, this most often occurs only in some unstressed syllables, generally in relaxed speech, but that is by no means universal.
  2. 2,0 2,1 In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are palatalized and affricated to post-alveolar before high front vowels /i, ĩ/ except for certain dialects of Northeast Region, Brazil, such as Central northeastern Portuguese /d, t/ are more often pronounced as alveolar or dental before high front vowels (/i, ĩ/). Furthermore, the full palatalization of /d, t/ in all positions before /i, ĩ/ (including in most loanwords) is truly complete only in the state of Rio de Janeiro.
  3. Final /l/ is velarized in along the Brazilian-Uruguayan border. In European Portuguese, it is velarized in all positions.
  4. /ʎ/ has merged with Template:IPAblink in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese, such as the Caipira dialect.
  5. 5,0 5,1 The rhotic consonant represented as /ʁ/ has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAblink, Template:IPAblink etc. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ Template:Angbr and /ʁ/ Template:Angbr contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as Template:Angbr, with /ʁ/ occurring word-initially, after Template:Angbr, Template:Angbr, and Template:Angbr and in compounds; /ɾ/ is found elsewhere.
  7. 7,0 7,1 The realization of syllable-final Template:Angbr varies by dialect but is generally pronounced as an alveolar tap Template:IPAblink in European Portuguese and some Brazilian dialects (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city), as a coronal approximant (Template:IPAblink or Template:IPAblink) in various other Brazilian dialects, and as a guttural R in all others (such as the city of Rio de Janeiro and almost all the Northeast). In some Brazilian Portuguese dialects, word-final Template:Angbr may also be completely elided in infinitives; e.g. ficar [fiˈka] (no Template:Angbr is pronounced as a tap [ɾ] only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit: ficar ao léu [fiˈkaɾ aw ˈlɛw]). That is very similar to the linking R used in some accents of English, such as Received Pronunciation or Australian English.
  8. 8,0 8,1 Mostly in Brazil, the fricatives /s/ and /z/ are not palatalized between syllables or coda positions, but there is a strong palatalization of them in some dialects, such as fluminense, northern, recifense, soteropolitan and florianopolitan (coda /s/ merges with /ʃ/ and /z/ merges with /ʒ/). In the carioca dialect (southern coast of the state Rio de Janeiro, including all of Greater Rio de Janeiro, coda sibilants are almost always palatalized ([ʃ, ʒ]), but in most dialects of the northeast region of Brazil, palatalization of fricatives occurs only before stop or affricate consonants (/d, t, dʒ, tʃ/), such in as the word texto [ˈteʃtu].
  9. Intervocalic glides are ambisyllabic, they are part of previous falling diphthongs and they are geminated to next syllable onset. Examples of such pronunciations are goiaba [ɡojˈjabɐ] and Cauã for [kawˈwɐ̃].
  10. 10,0 10,1 Most Brazilian dialects have closed Template:Angbr for stressed sequences Template:Angbr before /m/ and /n/. In many dialects it is also nasalized. Many speakers of those dialects, including broadcast media, use open Template:Angbr for some words like Jaime and Roraima.
  11. First-person plural past tense in European Portuguese has open Template:Angbr, and present tense has closed Template:Angbr. Both conjugated with closed Template:Angbr in Brazilian Portuguese
  12. In the dialect of Lisbon, /e/ merges with /ɐ/ when it comes before palatal sounds.
  13. 13,0 13,1 13,2 The "northern dialects" (restricted to North and Northeast Brazil) do not follow the Standard Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation in terms of unstressed vocalism. The standard pronunciations of those vowels are always closed /e, o/, as in "perereca" [peɾeˈɾɛkɐ] and "horário" [oˈɾaɾju], but in those dialects, they are open vowels /ɛ, ɔ/, and the those words are pronounced [pɛɾɛˈɾɛkɐ] and [ɔˈɾaɾju]. That is also true to but to a lesser extent for most speakers from the state of Rio de Janeiro and from the Federal District, as local dialects are also greatly affected by vowel harmony, and the same is true for many speakers from Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, Goiás, and Espírito Santo. In many cases, the distinction between /ɛ, e/ and /ɔ, o/ are unclear, with a tendency for neutralization to [e̞, o̞] (that happens in almost all of Brazil). Brazilian Portuguese /ẽ, õ/ can also vary between close-mid, mid, and open-mid positions, depending on the dialect, the speaker, and the word.
  14. There is no diphthong before palatal consonant, so hiatuses are not indicated before /ɲ/ (e.g. rainha /ʁaˈiɲɐ/).
  15. In Brazilian Portuguese, pre-stressed close Template:Angbr is obligatory only before /ɲ/ and has a tendency to be raised before other nasal consonants. In many dialects, nasalization is obligatory also before /ɲ/, Leo Wetzels proposes such nasalized dialects have phonemic palatal gemination (e.g. canhoto /kaɲˈɲotu/ [kɐ̃ˈɲotu]). See Consoantes palatais como geminadas fonológicas no Português Brasileiro*
  16. 16,0 16,1 In words such as "perigo" [pɪˈɾiɡu] and "boneco" [bʊˈnɛku], for example, vowels Template:Angbr pre-stressed syllables may be pronounced, respectively, as [ɪ, ʊ] in some varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, instead of [i, u].
  17. 17,0 17,1 Some of the post-stressed high vowels in hiatuses, as in frio ('cold') and rio ('river'), may vary between a reduced vowel [ˈfɾi.u] and a glide [ˈfɾiw], exceptions are verbal conjugations, forming pairs like eu rio [ˈew ˈʁi.u] (I laugh) and ele riu [ˈelɨ ˈʁiw] (he laughed).
  18. Nasal vowels in Portuguese are /ɐ̃/, /ẽ/, /ĩ/, /õ/ and /ũ/

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