Template:Citation

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Template:For2 Template:Cascade-protected template

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used. As with other citation templates, this template can be used either in a footnote (between <ref>...</ref> tags) or in a section that lists sources. This template uses the same Lua code as citation style 1 (CS1) templates with parameters to change the displayed format to citation style 2 (CS2).

If the correct parameters are used, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}, with one important exception: By default, this Citation template uses commas in places where the Cite templates use periods (full stops) by default; either type of template can use periods (full stops) or commas by using an optional parameter.

Regardless of which citation templates are used or even if none are used at all, all citations should have the same format throughout an article in the saved, rendered text.

Notes:

  • All parameter names must be lowercase.
  • Invisible unicode space characters (see list) will return an error message. Non-intentional invisible characters should be removed; intentional ones should be replaced with their corresponding HTML entity (e.g. &ZeroWidthSpace;).

Simple citations[muda l codesc]

This section covers the most commonly used parameters. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra parameters from the full list. Spacing and ordering of the parameters within the template is irrelevant and does not affect the final, rendered text.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |access-date=}}

{{Citation
| last        =
| first       =
| year        =
| title       =
| publisher   =
| publication-place =
| page        =
| url         =
| access-date =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with the author parameter.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • access-date: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.

Example[muda l codesc]

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| ol        = 7120924W
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL 7120924W

Full citation parameters[muda l codesc]

These can be used for all types of publication. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| translator-last   =
| translator-first  =
| translator-link   = 
| translator2-last  =
| translator2-first =
| translator2-link  =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| orig-date =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| chapter-format  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| encyclopedia =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| no-pp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi-inactive-date=
| zbl =
| url =
| access-date  =
| format       =
| archive-url  =
| archive-date =
| url-status   =
| quote      =
| separator  =
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[muda l codesc]

Syntax[muda l codesc]

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COinS[muda l codesc]

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What's new[muda l codesc]

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Deprecated[muda l codesc]

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Description[muda l codesc]

Authors[muda l codesc]

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Editors[muda l codesc]

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Title[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/title" does not exist. Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/chapter" does not exist. Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/type" does not exist. Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/language" does not exist.

Date[muda l codesc]

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Work[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/journal" does not exist.

Publisher[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/publisher" does not exist.

Edition, series, volume[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/edition" does not exist. Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/series" does not exist. Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/volume" does not exist.

In-source locations[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/pages" does not exist.

URL[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/url" does not exist.

Chapter URL[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/chapterurl" does not exist.

Anchor[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/ref" does not exist.

Identifiers[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/id1" does not exist. Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/id2" does not exist.

Quote[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/quote" does not exist.

Laysummary[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/lay" does not exist.

Display options[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/display" does not exist.

Subscription or registration required[muda l codesc]

Fal Lua: expandTemplate: template "Citation Style documentation/registration" does not exist.

Examples[muda l codesc]

Books[muda l codesc]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| name-list-style = amp
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, vol. XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon

Web[muda l codesc]

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| access-date = November 30, 2010
| ref = none
}}
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, trat ite ai November 30, 2010
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| access-date = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archive-date = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, archivià da l uriginel ai October 13, 2007, trat ite ai October 25, 2007

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[muda l codesc]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF), BYU Studies, 12 (2): 1–8
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue = 1
| pages = 153–161
| year  = 1981
| pmid  = 7338906
| doi   = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M; Elias, J; et al. (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol, 152 (1): 153–161, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| location = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879
| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald, Plano, IL, vol. 26, no. 19, p. 289

Conference papers and public lectures[muda l codesc]

Conference paper
{{Citation
| last   = Sullivan
| first  = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year   = 2001
| title  = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| contribution-url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Lecture
{{Citation
| last   = Habicht
| first  = Christian
| contribution = Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers
| year   = 1988
| title  = David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World
| publisher = Princeton University
| page=14 
}}
Habicht, Christian (1988), "Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers", David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World, Princeton University, p. 14

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[muda l codesc]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan (ed.), Early Mormon Documents, vol. 1, Signature Books (published 1996), ISBN 1-56085-072-8
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, vol. 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-072-8
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| year=1999
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| location = London
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley (ed.), Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, vol. 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| year = 1999
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| location = London
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, vol. 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[muda l codesc]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean (ed.), "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF), BYU Studies (published 1976), 17 (1): 35
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| type = Affidavit
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), written at Lincoln County, Nevada, Toohy, Dennis J. (ed.), "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Affidavit), Corinne, Utah (published September 24, 1872), 5 (252): 1

Press release[muda l codesc]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = https://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| access-date = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3
| ref = none}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, trat ite ai April 10, 2010, in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3

Anchored citations[muda l codesc]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref= generates an anchor ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; an anchor ID is generated by default.

To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |date=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[muda l codesc]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors (or editors, if no authors are given) and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "Template:Harv", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |date=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "Template:Harvid".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=The Ego and the Id |date=1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki § Time function. This heuristic works with most common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=.

IDs must be unique[muda l codesc]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g. "|date=2008a" and "|date=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[muda l codesc]

  1. The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include: Dates should not be linked (say, to a Wikipedia article of the same name) in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers) § Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[muda l codesc]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources § Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

TemplateData[muda l codesc]

This is the TemplateData for this template used by TemplateWizard, VisualEditor and other tools. click here to see a monthly parameter usage report for this template based on this TemplateData.

TemplateData for Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

[Modifica dati del modello]

Parametri template

Questo template ha una formattazione personalizzata.

ParametroDescrizioneTipoStato
Last namelast author author1 last1

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link' instead; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Lineaconsigliato
First namefirst first1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link' instead; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Lineaconsigliato
Title of sourcetitle

Title of source. Works display in italics and articles surrounded in quotation marks.

Stringaobbligatorio
Date of sourcedate

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

Stringafacoltativo
URL of sourceurl

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

Stringafacoltativo
Workwork journal website newspaper magazine encyclopedia encyclopaedia dictionary periodical

Name of the work in which the cited title is found

Stringafacoltativo
Volumevolume

For one publication published in several volumes

Lineaconsigliato
Issueissue number

Issue number

Stringafacoltativo
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

Lineafacoltativo
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

Lineaconsigliato
Publication datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.

Stringafacoltativo
Date formatdf

Sets rendered dates to the specified format

Stringafacoltativo
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

Numerofacoltativo
Postscriptpostscript

Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.

Stringafacoltativo
Editor last nameeditor-last editor editor-surname editor-last1 editor-surname1 editor1 editor1-last editor1-surname

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

Sconosciutofacoltativo
Editor first nameeditor-first editor-first1 editor-given1 editor1-first editor1-given

The given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

Sconosciutofacoltativo
Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.

Stringafacoltativo
Original dateorig-date

Original date of publication; provide specifics

Numerofacoltativo
Translated titletrans-title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

Contenutofacoltativo
Translated chapter titletrans-chapter

An English language chapter title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

Contenutofacoltativo
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

Contenutofacoltativo
Archive URLarchive-url

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archive-date'

Lineafacoltativo
Seriesseries version

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

Contenutofacoltativo
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

Lineafacoltativo
No ppno-pp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

Lineafacoltativo
Chapterchapter

The chapter heading of the source

Stringafacoltativo
contributioncontribution

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
chapter-urlchapter-url

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
contribution-urlcontribution-url

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
chapter-formatchapter-format

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
Othersothers

Free-text field for people involved in creating a work who cannot be added with another name parameter such as author or editor

Stringafacoltativo
Editionedition

When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

Lineafacoltativo
Location of publicationplace location

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked

Stringafacoltativo
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

Contenutofacoltativo
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; displays after title

Contenutofacoltativo
Languagelanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the ISO 639 language code (preferred) or the full language name; do not use icons or templates

Contenutofacoltativo
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

Contenutofacoltativo
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

Lineafacoltativo
ASINasin ASIN

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

Lineafacoltativo
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

Lineafacoltativo
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

Lineafacoltativo
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

Lineafacoltativo
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

Lineafacoltativo
DOIdoi DOI

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

Stringafacoltativo
DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

Datafacoltativo
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

Lineafacoltativo
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

Lineafacoltativo
eISSNeissn

International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

Lineafacoltativo
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

Lineafacoltativo
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

Lineafacoltativo
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

Lineafacoltativo
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

Lineafacoltativo
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

Numerofacoltativo
OLol

Open Library identifier

Lineafacoltativo
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

Lineafacoltativo
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

Numerofacoltativo
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

Lineafacoltativo
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

Numerofacoltativo
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

Lineafacoltativo
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

Lineafacoltativo
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

Lineafacoltativo
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

Contenutofacoltativo
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

Lineafacoltativo
URL access dateaccess-date

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

Datafacoltativo
Name list stylename-list-style

Sets the style for the list. Accepts 'amp', 'and', and 'vanc'. amp displays an ampersand after the penultimate name; and the same with 'and', and vanc displays in Vancouver format

Stringafacoltativo
Display authorsdisplay-authors

number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used; must be less than the number listed

Numerofacoltativo
Archive datearchive-date

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

Datafacoltativo
Last name 2last2 author2 surname2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link2' instead.

Lineafacoltativo
First name 2first2 given2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Last name 3last3 author3 surname3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link3' instead.

Lineafacoltativo
First name 3first3 given3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Last name 4last4 author4 surname4

The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link4' instead.

Lineafacoltativo
First name 4first4 given4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Last name 5last5 author5 surname5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link5' instead.

Lineafacoltativo
First name 5first5 given5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Last name 6last6 author6 surname6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link6' instead.

Lineafacoltativo
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Last name 7last7 author7 surname7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link7' instead.

Lineafacoltativo
First name 7first7 given7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Last name 8last8 author8 surname8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link8' instead.

Lineafacoltativo
First name 8first8 given8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Last name 9last9 author9 surname9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link9' instead. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

Lineafacoltativo
First name 9first9 given9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Author linkauthor-link author1-link author-link1

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Author link 2author-link2 author2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Author link 3author-link3 author3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Author link 4author-link4 author4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Author link 5author-link5 author5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Author link 6author-link6 author6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Author link 7author-link7 author7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Author link 8author-link8 author8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Author link 9author-link9 author9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Editor last name 2editor2-last editor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor first name 2editor2-first editor2-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor last name 3editor3-last editor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor first name 3editor3-first editor3-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor last name 4editor4-last editor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor first name 4editor4-first editor4-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor last name 5editor5-last editor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor first name 5editor5-first editor5-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor last name 6editor6-last editor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor first name 6editor6-first editor6-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor last name 7editor7-last editor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor first name 7editor7-first editor7-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor last name 8editor8-last editor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor first name 8editor8-first editor8-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor last name 9editor9-last editor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

Lineafacoltativo
Editor first name 9editor9-first editor9-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineafacoltativo
editor-linkeditor-link

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
editor1-linkeditor1-link

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
editor2-linkeditor2-link

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
editor3-linkeditor3-link

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
editor4-linkeditor4-link

nessuna descrizione

Stringafacoltativo
Translator last nametranslator-last translator translator-last1 translator1 translator1-last

The surname of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first nametranslator-first translator1-first translator-first1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator linktranslator-link translator-link1 translator1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Translator last name 2translator-last2 translator2 translator2-last

The surname of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first name 2translator-first2 translator2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator last name 3translator-last3 translator3 translator3-last

The surname of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first name 3translator-first3 translator3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator last name 4translator-last4 translator4 translator4-last

The surname of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first name 4translator-first4 translator4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator last name 5translator-last5 translator5 translator5-last

The surname of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first name 5translator-first5 translator5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator last name 6translator-last6 translator6 translator6-last

The surname of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first name 6translator-first6 translator6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator last name 7translator-last7 translator7 translator7-last

The surname of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first name 7translator-first7 translator7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator last name 8translator-last8 translator8 translator8-last

The surname of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first name 8translator-first8 translator8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator last name 9translator-last9 translator9 translator9-last

The surname of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator first name 9translator-first9 translator9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Stringafacoltativo
Translator link 2translator-link2 translator2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second translator.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Translator link 3translator-link3 translator3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third translator.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Translator link 4translator-link4 translator4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth translator.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Translator link 5translator-link5 translator5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth translator.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Translator link 6translator-link6 translator6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth translator.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Translator link 7translator-link7 translator7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh translator.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Translator link 8translator-link8 translator8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth translator.

Nome della paginafacoltativo
Translator link 9translator-link9 translator9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth translator.

Nome della paginafacoltativo

Template:UF-COinS

See also[muda l codesc]

Notes[muda l codesc]

Template:Wikipedia referencing Template:Wikipedia help pages