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This template is used to produce a phonetic or phonemic representation (using the IPA system) of Mandarin Chinese words or sounds, using Pinyin input to avoid the need to search for the correct phonetic symbols. The result is wikilinked to Help:IPA for Mandarin. Optionally, an audio file can also be specified.

Usage[muda l codesc]

The number of parameters is always limited to 41 (Note: parameter #41 can only be a tone number).

Normal usage:

With an audio file:

To change the delimiters (for example, if several instances of the template need to be strung together because of the limit on the number of parameters):

The full range of special values for the first parameter (changing the delimiters and/or specifying that the next parameter is an audio file) is as follows:

  • -- [- -] // /- -/ AUD -]AUD //AUD -/AUD

For example, to link an audio clip as well as change delimeters:

Initials[muda l codesc]

The following initials are used as in Pinyin, and represent their normal sounds in Standard Mandarin:

  • b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s

Finals[muda l codesc]

Each final should be entered as a whole parameter, and as if it were not preceded by an initial, though in most cases either form is acceptable:

  • yong (or iong), wa (or ua), etc.

But note that the finals with ⟨ü⟩, despite usually being written ⟨u⟩ in Pinyin, must either be substituted with yu ü v, or written together with the initial j, q, or x. Similarly, the null final of shi, ri, etc. must either be substituted with ^ (a caret), or written together with the initial z(h) c(h) s(h) or r.

Erhua is indicated simply with an ‹-r› as part of the final, e.g., angr.

List of Pinyin finals accepted for template input

Tones[muda l codesc]

The tones are indicated by their traditional tone number, entered as the parameter after the final of the syllable. Note that this template uses IPA tone diacritics, which are different from the Pinyin tone diacritics:

Tone number description Input Result Pinyin
1 high
[á] ā
2 rising
[ǎ] á
3 low
[à] ǎ
4 falling
[â] à
5 neutral
[a] a

Special parameters[muda l codesc]

The following parameters have special meanings:

  • - (hyphen) for a space between words
  • . (period) for a syllable break
  • ' (apostrophe) for a primary stress mark (placed before the stressed syllable)
  • , (comma) for a secondary stress mark (placed before the stressed syllable)

Other values used as parameters will be displayed unconverted. (The conversion system is coded in Template:c-cmn. The tones are encoded in Template:tone-cmn)

See also[muda l codesc]