Berlin

Da Wikipedia
Articul per Ladin Gherdëina Val Gardena dall'alto.JPG
Siegessaeule Aussicht 10-13 img4 Tiergarten.jpg
Berlin
Blason de Berlin
Nfurmazions prinzipeles
Stat GermaniaGermania Germania
Stat federel BerlinBerlin Berlin
Fundazion 13ejim secul do Gejù Crist
Populazion 3 677 472 ab. (31 dezëmber 2021)[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]
Densità 4 126,8 ab./km²
Geografia
Coordinedes 52°31'N, 13°23'E
Autëza 34 m
Spersa 891,1 km²[4][6]
Auter
Targa de l'auto B
Codesc de la posta 10115–14199
Gemeindeschlüssel 11000000
Plata internet www.berlin.de/politik-verwaltung-buerger/
Cherta
Cherta de localisazion: Germania
Berlin
Berlin
Berlin (Germania)

Berlin (pronunzià [bɛʁˈliːn] (Nfurmazions sun chësta uscscota su)[12]) ie la capitela y la majera zità de la Germania y ënghe un di 16 stac federei (Bundesländer).[13][14] Si 3,7 milions de abitanc ne'n fej la majera zità de l'Union Europea n cont de abitanc tl chemun.[15] Berlin ie ncertleda ite dal Brandenburg y ie tacheda adum cun Potsdam, la capitela dl Brandenburg. L raion urban de Berlin à na populazion de ntëur a 4,5 milions de abitanc, cie che ne'n fej l segondo majer raion urban do la Ruhr.[16] L raion Berlin-Brandenburg à ntëur a 6,2 milions de abitanc y ie la terzo majer raion metropolitan de la Germania do i raions Rain-Ruhr y Rain-Main.[17]

Berlin ie sui ëures de la Spree, che tl raion de Spandau va te la Havel (y chëla va po te la Elbe). La zità à n grum de lec tl vest y sud. L majer de chisc ie l Müggelsee. Berlin à n tlima temperà. Belau n terz de la spersa de la zità ie bosc, parchs y verzons, ruves, canai y lec.[18]

Berlin fova stata documenteda per l prim iede tl 13ejim secul ala ncrujeda de doi mpurtantes rutes comerzieles.[19] Berlin fova deventeda la capitela dl Margraviat de Brandenburg (1417–1701), dl Rëni de Pruscia (1701–1918), dl Mper Tudësch (1871–1918), de la Republica de Weimar (1919–1933) y de la Germania nazista (1933–1945). Berlin ti ani 1920 fova l majer chemun al mond.[20] Do la Segonda Viera Mundiela y la ocupazion de la zità da pert de la forzes che ova venciù, ie la zità stata spartida; Westberlin fova deventà n exclav de la Germania dl Vest, ncertleda ite dal Mur de Berlin (da agost 1961 a nuvëmber 1989) y da la Germania de l'Est.[21] Ostberlin fova deventeda la capitela de la Germania de l'Est y Bonn chëla de la Germania dl Vest. Do la Reunificazion tudëscia tl 1990 ie Berlin inò deventeda la capitela de duta la Germania.

Berlin ie na zità mundiela de cultura, pulitica, media and scienza.[22][23][24][25] Si economia se basa sun firmes high-tech y firmes tl setor di servijes, cun n grum de industries creatives, de nrescida, firmes de media y sales per fieres.[26][27] Berlin ie n hub cuntinentel per l trasport sun scines y te l'aria y à n sistem de trasport publich scialdi cumplex. L raion metropolitan ie na destinazion turistica scialdi renumeda.[28]

Berlin ie la sënta de n numer de universiteies renumedes sëura l mond, sciche la Università Humboldt, la Università Tecnica, la Università Lieda, la Università d'Ert, ESMT Berlin, la Scola Hertie y l Bard College Berlin. L Zoologischer Garten ie l zoo plu vijità de l'Europa y un de i plu mpurtanc al mond. L studio Babelsberg fova l prim gran cumplex de studios da film al mond y a Berlin vën fac plu y plu films nternaziunei.[29] La zità ie cunesciuda per si festivals, plu sortes de architetura, vita da nuet, ert de al didancuei y na cualità de vita scialdi auta.[30]

Berlin à trëi sic de l'Arpejon Mundiela UNESCO: Museumsinsel; i Palac y parchs de Potsdam y Berlin; y la Siedlungen der Berliner Moderne.[31] Autri luesc mpurtanc ie la Porta de Brandenburg, l Cësa dl Reichstag, l Potsdamer Platz, l Memorial ai Judieres mazei de l'Europa, l Memorial dl Mur de Berlin, la East Side Gallery, la Culona de Vitoria de Berlin, l Dom de Berlin y la Tor Televijiva de Berlin, che ie la strutura plu auta te la Germania. Berlin à n grum de museums, galeries, biblioteches y orchestres. Danter chisc ie la Alte Nationalgalerie, l Bode-Museum, l Pergamonmuseum, l Deutsches Historisches Museum, l Museum di Judieres de Berlin, l Museum für Naturkunde, l Humboldt Forum, la Bibliotech Statela de Berlin, l'Opra Statela de Berlin, i Berliner Philharmoniker y l Marathon de Berlin.

Storia[mudé | muda l codesc]

Dal 12ejim al 16ejim escul[mudé | muda l codesc]

Cherta de Berlin tl 1688

La prima evidënzes de nridlamënc tl raion de Berlin ie i sedims de na cësa dl 1174 che ie stata abineda te giavedes te Berlin Mitte,[32] y n tram de lën che ie stat datà al 1192.[33] I prim tesć sun luesc ulache al didancuei ie Berlin ie de la fin dl 12ejim secul. Spandau ie stat nunzià per l prim iede tl 1197 y Köpenick tl 1209.[34] La pert zentrela de Berlin se à cul tëmp furmà da doi luesc. Cölln sun la Fischerinsel ie stat nunzià te n documënt dl 1237, y Berlin, sun l'auter ëur de la Spree tl raion che ie sën l Nikolaiviertel, ie stata nunzieda te n documënt dl 1244.[33] L ann 1237 vën tëut coche la fundazion de la zità.[35] La doi ziteies ie cul tëmp cresciudes adum y prufitova de vester sun la rutes comerzieles Via Imperii da Brugge a Novgorod.[19] In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated.[36][37]

Tl 1415 ie Friedrich I. von Brandenburg deventà l prinz-litadëur dl Margraviat de Brandenburg y ova renià nfin al 1440.[38] Tl 15ejim secul oven metù su Berlin-Cölln coche la capitela dl margraviat y i cumëmbri de la familia Hohenzollern ovà da ilò inant renià a Berlin nfin al 1918, n iede coche litadëures de Brandenburg, pona coche rëisc de la Pruscia, y ala fin coche cozeri de la Germania. Tl 1443 ova Friedrich II. von Brandenburg, cunesciù coche Eisenzahn, scumencià a fabriché l palaz de Berlin te la zità de Berlin-Cölln. Dal 1470 inant fova Berlin-Cölln deventeda la nueva residënza da rë.[37] Tl 1539 fova i litadëures y la zità deventei ufizielmënter luteran.[39]

Dal 17ejim al 19ejim secul[mudé | muda l codesc]

Catedrela de Berlin (man ciancia) y l Palaz de Berlin (man drëta) tl 1900

La Viera di 30 Ani danter l 1618 y l 1648 ova devastà Berlin. N terz de la cëses fova states desdrudes y la zità ova perdù mesa si populazion.[40] Friedrich Wilhelm, cunesciù coche l "Gran Litadëur" (Großer Kurfürst), ova metù na scumenciadiva de dé mpuls ala imigrazion y la toleranza religëusa.[41] Cul Edict de Potsdam tl 1685 ova Friedrich Wilhelm dat asil politich ai Huguenots franzëusc.[42] Chësc ova purtà pro che tl 1700 fova belau l 30% de la populazion de Berlin franzëusc.[43]

Geografia[mudé | muda l codesc]

Tlima[mudé | muda l codesc]

Temperatures mesanes y prezipitazions per Berlin
Jen Fau Mer Aur Mei Jun Lug Ago Set Uto Nov Dez
Mesaria mascima (°C) 2,9 4,2 8,5 13,2 18,9 21,6 23,7 23,6 18,8 13,4 7,1 4,4 Ø 13,4
Mesaria minima (°C) −1,9 −1,5 1,3 4,2 9,0 12,3 14,3 14,1 10,6 6,4 2,2 −0,4 Ø 5,9
Prezipitazions (mm) 42,3 33,3 40,5 37,1 53,8 68,7 55,5 58,2 45,1 37,3 43,6 55,3 Σ 570,7
Dis cun prezipitazions (d) 10,0 8,0 9,1 7,8 8,9 9,8 8,4 7,9 7,8 7,6 9,6 11,4 Σ 106,3
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
a
2,9
−1,9
4,2
−1,5
8,5
1,3
13,2
4,2
18,9
9,0
21,6
12,3
23,7
14,3
23,6
14,1
18,8
10,6
13,4
6,4
7,1
2,2
4,4
−0,4
Jen Fau Mer Aur Mei Jun Lug Ago Set Uto Nov Dez
P
r
e
z
i
p
i
t
a
z
i
o
n
s
42,3
33,3
40,5
37,1
53,8
68,7
55,5
58,2
45,1
37,3
43,6
55,3
  Jen Fau Mer Aur Mei Jun Lug Ago Set Uto Nov Dez
Funtana: DWD, Daten: 1971–2000[44]

Capitela[mudé | muda l codesc]

Berlin ie la capitela de la Republica Federela de la Germania. L presidënt de la Germania, che aldò de la costituzion à na funzion scialdi mé zerimoniela, à si residënza ufiziela tl Palaz Bellevue.[45]

L spustamënt dl guviern federel y dl Bundestag da Bonn a Berlin fova per la gran pert finà tl 1999. N valgun ministeresc y n valgun pitli dipartimënc resta mo a Bonn. L da mo for na discuscion sce spusté nce l rest di ministeresc.[46] A Berlin ie l Ufize di Afares Furesć y i ministeresc y dipartimënc de la Defendura, Giustizia y Prutezion di Cunsumadëures, Finanza, Dedite, Afares de Economia y Energia, Lëur y Afares Soziei, Afares de Familia, Jënt Vedla, Ëiles y Jëuni, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Nurimënt y Lëur da Paur, Cooperazion Economica y Svilup, Sanità, Trasport y Nfrastrutura Digitela y l Educazion y Nrescida.

A Berlin dal 158 ambascedes[47] y nce n gran numer de think tanks, sindacac, urganizaions non-profit, grupes de lobby y asoziazions prufescioneles.

Demografia[mudé | muda l codesc]

Populazion de Berlin, 1880–2012
Populazion storica
AnnPop.±%
172165 300—    
1750113 289+73.5%
1800172 132+51.9%
1815197 717+14.9%
1825220 277+11.4%
1840330 230+49.9%
1852438 958+32.9%
1861547 571+24.7%
1871826 341+50.9%
18801 122 330+35.8%
18901 578 794+40.7%
19001 888 848+19.6%
19102 071 257+9.7%
19203 879 409+87.3%
19254 082 778+5.2%
19334 221 024+3.4%
19394 330 640+2.6%
19453 064 629−29.2%
19503 336 026+8.9%
19603 274 016−1.9%
19703 208 719−2.0%
19803 048 759−5.0%
19903 433 695+12.6%
20003 382 169−1.5%
20103 460 725+2.3%
20203 664 088+5.9%
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.

Nazionaliteies[mudé | muda l codesc]

Residënza per naziunalità (31 dezëmber 2019)[15]
Stat Populazion
Total di abitanc registrei 3,769,495
 Germania 2,992,150
 Turchia 98,940
 Polonia 56,573
 Siria 39,813
 Talia 31,573
 Bulgaria 30,824
 Ruscia 26,640
 Romania 24,264
 Stac Unii 22,694
 Vietnam 20,572
 Franzia 20,223
 Serbia 20,109
 Riam Unì 16,751
 Spania 15,045
 Grecia 14,625
 Croazia 14,430
 India 13,450
 Ucraina 13,410
 Afghanistan 13,301
 Cina 13,293
 Bosnia y Herzegovina 12,691
Rest dl Mez Urient y Asia 88,241
Rest de l'Europa 80,807
Africa 36,414
Other Americas 27,491
Oceania and Antarctica 5,651
Stateless or Unclear 24,184

Infrastrutura[mudé | muda l codesc]

Trasport[mudé | muda l codesc]

Stredes[mudé | muda l codesc]

Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility.[48] A total of 979 bridges cross 197 km (122 mi) of inner-city waterways. 5,422 km (3,369 mi) of roads run through Berlin, of which 77 km (48 mi) are motorways (Autobahn).[49] In 2013, 1.344 million motor vehicles were registered in the city.[49] With 377 cars per 1000 residents in 2013 (570/1000 in Germany), Berlin as a Western global city has one of the lowest numbers of cars per capita.[mancia na referënza] In 2012, around 7,600 mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service.[mancia na referënza] Since 2011, a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved.

Ferata[mudé | muda l codesc]

L Berlin Hauptbahnhof ie la majera stazion dla ferata a partimënc de l'Europa.

Linies de ferata a distanza culeghea Berlin cun duta la majera ziteies de la Germania y cun n grum de ziteies di stac Europeics che cunfina. Linies regioneles dl Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg pieta servijes ai raions dl Brandenburg ntëurvia y al Mer Baltich. La Stazion Zentrela de Berlin ie la majera stazion dla ferata a partimënc de l'Europa.[50] La Deutsche Bahn fej jì la ferates a auta velozità Intercity-Express a destinazions naziuneles sciche Hamburg, Minca, Köln, Stuttgart, Frankfurt sul Main y autres. La fej ënghe jì na ferata express per l aeroport y ferates a na cumpëida de destinazions nternaziuneles sciche Viena, Praga, Zürich, Varsavia, Breslau, Budapest y Amsterdam.

Trasport sun ega[mudé | muda l codesc]

Berlin is connected to the Elbe and Oder rivers via the Spree and the Havel rivers. There are no frequent passenger connections to and from Berlin by water, but some of the freight is transported via waterways. Berlin's largest harbour, the Westhafen, is located in the district of Moabit. It is a transhipment and storage site for inland shipping with a growing importance.[51]

Curieres danter ziteies[mudé | muda l codesc]

Similarly to other German cities, there is an increasing quantity of intercity bus services. The city has more than 10 stations[52] that run buses to destinations throughout Germany and Europe, Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin being the biggest station.

Trasport publich[mudé | muda l codesc]

The Berlin U-Bahn (Metro) at Heidelberger Platz station

The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) and the Deutsche Bahn (DB) manage several extensive urban public transport systems.[53]

Sistem Stazions / Linies / Lunghëza Passajiers a l'ann Operadëur / Notes
S-Bahn 166 / 16 / 331 km (206 mi) 431 000 000 (2016) DB / Mainly overground rapid transit rail system with suburban stops
U-Bahn 173 / 10 / 146 km (91 mi) 563 000 000 (2017) BVG / Mainly underground rail system / 24h-service on weekends
Tram 404 / 22 / 194 km (121 mi) 197 000 000 (2017) BVG / Operates predominantly in eastern boroughs
Curiera 3227 / 198 / 1,675 km (1,041 mi) 440 000 000 (2017) BVG / Extensive services in all boroughs / 62 Night Lines
Bastimënt 6 lines BVG / Transportation as well as recreational ferries

Travelers can access all modes of transport with a single ticket.

Public transportation in Berlin has a long and complicated history because of the 20th-century division of the city, where movement between the two halves was not served. Since 1989, the transport network has been developed extensively; however, it still contains early 20th century traits, such as the U1.[54]

Aeroporc[mudé | muda l codesc]

Airports in Berlin, including those that are no longer used (as of November 2020)
Typical cycle street in Prenzlauer Berg

Berlin is served by one commercial international airport: Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER), located just outside Berlin's south-eastern border, in the state of Brandenburg. It began construction in 2006, with the intention of replacing Tegel Airport (TXL) and Schönefeld Airport (SXF) as the single commercial airport of Berlin.[55] Previously set to open in 2012, after extensive delays and cost overruns, it opened for commercial operations in October 2020.[56] The planned initial capacity of around 27 million passengers per year[57] is to be further developed to bring the terminal capacity to approximately 55 million per year by 2040.[58]

Before the opening of the BER in Brandenburg, Berlin was served by Tegel Airport and Schönefeld Airport. Tegel Airport was within the city limits, and Schönefeld Airport was located at the same site as the BER. Both airports together handled 29.5 million passengers in 2015. In 2014, 67 airlines served 163 destinations in 50 countries from Berlin.[59] Tegel Airport was a focus city for Lufthansa and Eurowings while Schönefeld served as an important destination for airlines like Germania, easyJet and Ryanair. Until 2008, Berlin was also served by the smaller Tempelhof Airport, which functioned as a city airport, with a convenient location near the city center, allowing for quick transit times between the central business district and the airport. The airport grounds have since been turned into a city park.

Jì cun la roda[mudé | muda l codesc]

Berlin is well known for its highly developed bicycle lane system.[60] It is estimated Berlin has 710 bicycles per 1000 residents. Around 500,000 daily bike riders accounted for 13% of total traffic in 2010.[61] Cyclists have access to 620 km (385 mi) of bicycle paths including approximately 150 km (93 mi) of mandatory bicycle paths, 190 km (118 mi) of off-road bicycle routes, 60 km (37 mi) of bicycle lanes on roads, 70 km (43 mi) of shared bus lanes which are also open to cyclists, 100 km (62 mi) of combined pedestrian/bike paths and 50 km (31 mi) of marked bicycle lanes on roadside pavements (or sidewalks).[62] Riders are allowed to carry their bicycles on Regionalbahn, S-Bahn and U-Bahn trains, on trams, and on night buses if a bike ticket is purchased.[63]

Galaria de fotografies[mudé | muda l codesc]


Cëla nce[mudé | muda l codesc]

Notes[mudé | muda l codesc]

Referënzes[mudé | muda l codesc]

  1. https://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/Publikationen/OTab/2014/OT_A01-10-00_124_201311_BE.pdf.
  2. https://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/publikationen/otab/2015/OT_A01-14-00_124_201412_BBB.pdf.
  3. http://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/publikationen/stat_berichte/2016/SB_A01-07-00_2015m12_BE.pdf.
  4. 4,0 4,1 https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/LaenderRegionen/Regionales/Gemeindeverzeichnis/Administrativ/Aktuell/05Staedte.html.
  5. https://www.statistik-berlin-brandenburg.de/.
  6. 6,0 6,1 "Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2018 (4. Quartal)". Archivià da l uriginel ai 10 merz 2019. Trat ite ai 10 merz 2019.
  7. https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/LaenderRegionen/Regionales/Gemeindeverzeichnis/Administrativ/Archiv/GVAuszugQ/AuszugGV4QAktuell.html.
  8. https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Laender-Regionen/Regionales/Gemeindeverzeichnis/Administrativ/04-kreise.html.
  9. https://www.statistikportal.de/de/produkte/gemeindeverzeichnis.
  10. https://www.statistikportal.de/de/produkte/gemeindeverzeichnis.
  11. https://www.statistikportal.de/de/gemeindeverzeichnis.
  12. Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf; Mangold, Max (2015). Das Aussprachewörterbuch (7th ed.). Berlin: Duden. p. 229. ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4.
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  14. "Leipzig überholt bei Einwohnerzahl Dortmund – jetzt Platz 8 in Deutschland". Leipziger Volkszeitung (per tedesco). Leipzig. 1 August 2019. Archivià da l uriginel ai 13 November 2019. Trat ite ai 24 November 2019.
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  16. Fal tles notes: Errore nell'uso del marcatore <ref>: non è stato indicato alcun testo per il marcatore citypopulation_urban
  17. "Daten und Fakten zur Hauptstadtregion". www.berlin-brandenburg.de. 4 October 2016. Archivià dal uriginel ai 21 March 2019. Trat ite ai 13 April 2022.
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  29. "Hollywood Helps Revive Berlin's Former Movie Glory". Deutsche Welle. 9 August 2008. Archivià dal uriginel ai 13 August 2008. Trat ite ai 18 August 2008.
  30. Flint, Sunshine (12 December 2004). "The Club Scene, on the Edge". The New York Times. Archivià dal uriginel ai 2 April 2013. Trat ite ai 18 August 2008. See also: "Ranking of best cities in the world". City mayors. Archivià dal uriginel ai 1 November 2010. Trat ite ai 18 August 2008. and "The Monocle Quality of Life Survey 2015". Monocle. Archivià dal uriginel ai 14 August 2015. Trat ite ai 20 July 2015.
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  33. 33,0 33,1 Rising, David (30 January 2008). "Berlin dig finds city older than thought". NBC News. Associated Press. Archivià dal uriginel ai 2 January 2018. Trat ite ai 1 January 2018.
  34. "Zitadelle Spandau" [Spandau Citadel]. BerlinOnline Stadtportal GmbH & Co. KG. 2002. Archivià da l uriginel ai 12 June 2008. Trat ite ai 18 August 2008.
  35. "The medieval trading center". BerlinOnline Stadtportal GmbH & Co. KG. Archivià dal uriginel ai 31 July 2016. Trat ite ai 11 June 2013.
  36. Stöver B. Geschichte Berlins. Verlag CH Beck, 2010. ISBN 978-3-406-60067-8
  37. 37,0 37,1 "Stadtgründung Und Frühe Stadtentwicklung" [City foundation and early urban development] (per tedesco). Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein. 2004. Archivià da l uriginel ai 20 June 2013. Trat ite ai 10 November 2018.
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